1.1. A notion of small and medium-sized enterprises in the European Union and Ukraine

First of all, why is it important to single out a separate notion of small and medium-sized enterprises?

Statistically these enterprises embrace the huge share of the EU and Ukrainian markets. In the EU in 2013 “some 21.6 million SMEs In the non‐financial business sector employed 88.8 million people and generated €3,666 trillion in value added. Expressed another way, 99 out of every 100 businesses are SMEs, as are 2 in every 3 employees and 58 cents in every euro of value added” [22, p. 6] and in Ukraine there are 99,8% of the SMEs (392 668 out of 393 327 enterprises) [74] with 67,3% employed people (~4 901 900 out of ~7 285 600 people) [73]. So we can see that national economics of the EU and Ukraine mostly depends on SMEs and it is important for the states to support and help SMEs by different regimes and simplified procedures.

It should be marked that within the European Union (hereinafter – EU) there are 2 levels: EU level or so-called «supranational» level and national level which exist in all 28 countries of the EU. That is why it will be considered the both levels.

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